Definitions

For the purposes of this site there are certain conventions that will be followed. 
Below are some items of particular importance in the consideration of these pages.
There are many more that could be added, but it would make this into an entire mullti-page volume.
These are provided for convenience. The alphabetical article titles will give you a sense of where to find more detailed information on a topic.

YAHWEH will be used wherever  hDwøh◊y  (YHWH) appears in the original text, as the
personal name of God.

YAHUSHUA will be used wherever "Jesus" is normally used, as the proper personal name of The Messiah.
The Messiah will be used where the title "Christ" appears in the text.
Sovereign will normally be used where adonay occurs. It will also be used of The Messiah (Jesus, Yeshua, Yahshua, etc.) when the title "Lord" is  used in English translations.

Context is crucial - By context I mean the setting within the text.
- Who's speaking or writing?
- To whom are they speaking or writing?
- What are the circumstances under which the material is presented?
- What’s the relationship of the material to the adjacent Scriptures?
- What's the relationship of the material to Scripture in general,
  and to
YAHWEH's revealed intentions?

Whenever you pull something out of context you tend to change its meaning.
Please be very careful to consider what is said within its proper context.

The following definitions are given for your convenience:
Webster’s New World Dictionary 

belief:

1. the state of believing; conviction that certain things are true; faith,
    especially religious faith.
2. trust; confidence; as, I have belief in his ability.
3. acceptance of or assent to something as trustworthy, real, etc.: as, a 
    claim beyond belief.
4. anything believed or accepted as true.
5. an opinion; expectation; judgment: as, y belief that he’ll come.
6. a creed or doctrine.

god:

1. any of various beings conceived of as supernatural, immortal, and
   having special powers over the lives and affairs of people and the course
   of nature; deity, especially a male deity.
2. an image that is worshipped; idol.
3. a person or thing deified or excessively honored and admired.
4. in monotheistic religions, the creator and ruler of the universe, regarded
   as eternal, infinite, all-powerful, and all-knowing; Supreme Being; Almighty.

sin:

“offense" will be used in place of sin in many instances.
Sin is an offense against
YAHWEH. It is a refusal to act according to what He has taught us He desires.

sovereign:
            adjective
            1. above or superior to all others; chief; greatest; supreme.
            2. supreme in power, rank, or authority.
            3. of or holding the position of ruler; royal; reigning
            4. independent of all others

            noun
            1. a person who possesses sovereign authority; monarch; ruler.
            2. a group of persons or a state that possesses sovereign authority.

translate:
            1. to change from one place, position, or condition to another; transfer;
            2. to change from one language to another.
            3. to change into another medium or form.
            4. to put into different words; interpret.
            SYN. – translation implies the rendering from one language into another of
            something written or spoken.

transliteration:
            Implies the writing of words with characters of another alphabet that
            represents the same sound or sounds.

worship:
             noun:
             1. a prayer, church service, or other rite showing reverence or devotion for a
             deity; religious homage or veneration.
             2. extreme devotion; intense love or admiration of any kind.
             verb:
             1. to show religious devotion or reverence for; adore or venerate as a deity.
             2. to have intense love or admiration for; idolize.
             3. to engage in worship, specifically to perform any act of religious devotion;
             offer prayers, attend church services, etc.

Hebrew Words for "God"

Given below are the meanings of Hebrew words used in reference to "God" under The Old Covenant. These will help you see the true meaning within the Hebrew understanding of the terms.

These are taken from Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance. Please note that everything that occurs after the (:—) is what actually appears in the KJV text. It is NOT part of the definition of the term.

adon, adonai

adon – a sovereign - singular

113. NwødDa  }adown, aw-done´; or (shortened) NOdDa }adon, aw-done´; from an unused root (meaning to rule); sovereign, i.e. controller (human or divine):
—lord, master, owner. Compare also names beginning with “Adoni-”.

adonai - more than one sovereign – plural
            - a collective noun when used with Yahweh.
            - with a y [i] at the end it means “my adon”.

136. yÎnOdSa  }Adonay, ad-o-noy´; am emphatic form of 113; the Lord (used as a proper name of God only):
—(my) Lord.
{Note: Improper representation as a proper name. It is a title, not a name.]

adonaim - a group, or groups of adon - plural
            - a collective noun that refers to all adonai as one group.

410. lEa  el, ale; shortened from 352; strength; as adjective, mighty; especially the Almighty (but used also of any deity): 

— God (god), x goodly, x great, idol, might(-y one), power, strong. Compare names in “-el.”

352. lˆyAa  ayil, ah´-yil; from the same as 193; properly, strength; hence, anything strong; specifically a chief (politically); also a ram (from his strength); a pilaster (as a strong support); an oak or other strong tree:
—mighty (man), lintel, oak, post, ram, tree.

193. l…wa  uwl, ool; from an unused root meaning to twist, i.e. (by implication) be strong; the body (as being rolled together); also powerful:
—mighty, strength.

353. lÎyTa  eyal, eh-yawl´; a variation of 352; strength:
—strength.

433. ;AhwølTa  elowahh, el-o´-ah; rarely (shortened)  ;hølTa  eloahh, el-o´-ah} probably prolonged (emphat.) from 410; a deity or the Deity
—God, god. See 430.

430. MyIhølTa  elohiym, el-o-heem´; plural of 433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative

—angels, x exceeding, God (gods)(-dess, -ly), x (very) great, judges, x mighty.

Glossary of Terms

The following terms are taken from Scripture For Seekers. Wherever quotations are given from this version of scripture these meanings will apply.

acknowledge – used in place of confess. From the Greek word homologeo.
It means: to assent, to approve; to agree; to covenant; to acknowledge.

Note the reference to covenant. Traditionally translated as: confess. But confessing something typically implies guilt for some wrong. “Confessing” faith in The Messiah is really acknowledging one’s belief or faith in Him.

ambassador – used in place of apostle. From the Greek word apostolos.
It means: a delegate; an ambassador. It is an appointed official representative of a person with certain authorities granted.

angel” - this is a “transliteration” of the Greek word, aggelos, which is pronounced as ahn-gay-los. It means messenger;  deputy, one sent. It’s very close to the same as ambassador in its meaning. (Please see the article on “Angels”.)

apostle – see ambassador.

assemblyused in place of church. From the Greek word ekklesia. It means: a calling out; a popular meeting, a religious congregation, synagogue, or community of members.

It is traditionally, translated most often as “church”, but it is also used of any assembly of persons – a congregation. No “churches” existed when The New Covenant books were written. The term was only used much later.

Since the very beginning of Scripture the “people of YAHWEH” have been referred to as an assembly.

“Church” is a word having its roots in early Greek, kuriakon, meaning “lord’s house”. From that came the German, kirche, then the Dutch, kerk, and the English, church.

Yet all of this is misleading because a “church” should not be viewed as a building, but rather, a gathering.

belief - faith - trustthese words are virtually interchangeable. You can’t have one without the other being involved.

From the Greek word pisteuo. It means: to have faith; to entrust. It’s translated as: believe or belief.

The two concepts are so intermingled in meaning that one virtually always means the other. In this work a combined form is most often used to draw attention to this issue. See faith also.

church – See assembly.No churches existed in the days during which The New Covenant was written.

condemnationThis is often confused with judgment. They may be associated, but they are not the same. There are three words used normally. The first Greek word is krima. It means: a decision, for or against. It’s translated as: avenge, condemned, condemnation, damnation, judgment. 

The second Greek word is krisis. It means: a decision; tribunal; justice. It is translated as: accusation, condemnation, damnation, judgment.

The third Greek word is katakrima. It means: an adverse sentence. It is virtually always translated as condemnation. This is the term that should be used when speaking of condemnation. Unfortunately, The New Covenant writers did not always use it. See judgment as well.

confess – see acknowledge.

crossreplaced with torture stake. From the Greek word stauros. It means: a stake, or post; a

pole or cross as an instrument of capital punishment. It is literally a torture stake, and is called such in this work to remind you that it had a specific function, and that was to torture someone to death.

It is not something to be “glorified”. It is not some beautiful ornament or decoration. It is an instrument of death.

Would you wear a hangman’s noose around your neck, or put one at the front of your “church” or the wall of your house, and make it “beautiful”?

delegate – see ambassador.

disciplestudent will be used in place of this term. The Greek word is mathetes. It means: a learner; a pupil; a student. Traditionally translated as: “disciple”. This has become a “religious” term.

Elohim – This is the original term by which “God” was known in Genesis 1.1. To make a distinction this work will use, in most cases, The Elohim. Context will determine usage.

The Hebrew word is elohiym, or elohim. It is a plural form of a word that means deity, eloahh. In a technical sense it means gods or deities. But it is typically used to refer to YAHWEH (God), as the one supreme being. It is translated as: God, angels, gods, judges.
Note: This is not God’s name. His name is YAHWEH. It is a title (a label) by which He was identified. Even as The Supreme Deity He was viewed in the ancient world as one of many deities.

fear - This term usually means anxiety of some type. You need to watch the context to determine what’s intended. It’s often used as “fear God” , or, “fear of God” in traditional texts. In this text you will often find reverence in place of “fear”. What’s intended in the text is a respect for YAHWEH, to stand in awe of His power and His authority in your life. 

glory – This term is challenging to correctly translate. It can mean several things. The Greek word is doxa. It means: glory, in the sense of being readily visible or apparent. It is translated as: dignity, glory, glorious honor, praise, worship. 

For our purposes it helps if you think in terms of honor or praise as the basic sense.
Let the context help you.

HadesThis term is often misunderstood. The Greek word is haides. It means: unseen; not seen; or, the place of departed spirits. Traditionally translated as: grave, or hell. Both are incorrect. The proper Hebrew term is she’ol. It refers to the state of being dead, to death itself, not to the grave, or to hell, etc. 

hearThis term has two senses. To hear, or to listen. It will be translated according to the context. The Greek word is akouo. It means: to hear; give audience; listen.

heaven, heavens, Heaven – This term provides several challenges. The Greek word is ouranos. It means: the sky; or by extension, Heaven – meaning the place where YAHWEH dwells; sometimes - air.

The context dictates usage. Reference to YAHWEH’s dwelling will be Heaven, or The Heaven, to distinguish it. YAHWEH does not live “in the sky”. And “the heavens” are very misleading in terms of what is meant. More clarity is needed. 

hell – While this word will be used, it’s helpful to understand what it refers to. There are many misconceptions. The Greek word is geena. It means: valley of Hinnom. It is also referred to as Ge- Hinnom, or Gehenna. This valley was the rubbish dump for Jerusalem, and was always burning – hence the concept of eternal fire was associated with it. Hell is the place of everlasting punishment.

human being – See man.

judgment – As with the term “condemnation” there is much confusion over the use of this term.

There are two basic senses. One is using the mind to determine the status of something – an assessment. The other is making a decision in the sense of “passing judgment” upon something – determining its “fate”.

The Greek words are: krima – It means: a decision, for or against. It is the result of making a determination. krino – It means: to distinguish; to decide; to condemn; to judge. It is the act of making a decision or “judgment”.

know, knowledge – There are several forms of “knowledge”. Improper use of the terms has resulted in much confusion. Unfortunately, there is little consistency in the use of these terms.

Once again, context becomes crucial. There are several Greek words used:

eido – to see; in the perfect tense - to know. Translated as: see, be aware, behold, know, perceive, understand, look
epistamai
– to put the mind upon; comprehend; be acquainted with. Translated as: know, understand ginosko – to know – absolutely. Translated in many ways, often incorrectly: allow, be aware, feel, perceive, knowledge, be sure, understand
epiginosko
– to know by some mark; recognize; acknowledge; become fully acquainted with. Translated as: perceive, know, knowledge
noieo
– to exercise the mind; think; observe; comprehend; pay attention. Translated as: consider, perceive, think, understand.
suniemi
to put together; comprehend. Translated as: consider, understand, be wise.
Perhaps you’ll begin to understand why this area is so confusing.

listen – This term is not used in many translations, but it should be. It’s something we do every day. See hear.

man, men – This term is often used incorrectly in Scripture. An attempt has been made to correct some of the confusion. There are actually two terms that are used.

The first Greek word is anthropos. It means: man- faced; human being. It is connected to human, humanity, humankind, etc. It’s a generic form.

It will be translated as either human being or person, depending on the context. The second Greek word is aner. It means: a man; individual male. It should have been used whenever a reference was to a male person. It would have eliminated a lot of grief.

offenses – It will be referred to as a trap or entrapment. This term is often used to refer to sin or an enticement to sin. It’s a poor choice of terminology for today, since people think of an offense as a defamatory remark or as a violation of the law – or perhaps a football term. The Greek word is skandalon. It means: a trap-stick; a snare. It’s translated as: occasion to fall, offence, stumbling block. The concept of a trap isn’t traditionally even used.

person – See man.

power – There is more than one form of power, and more than one term for them. Because of mistranslation or inconsistent usage this gets confusing also.

dunamis – It means: force; miraculous power; a miracle. Translated as: ability, abundance, meaning, mighty, might, miracle, power, strength, violence, mighty work. It will be primarily used in this work as power, or miraculous power, although other possibilities do exist.
exousia – It means: privilege; force, capacity, competency, freedom, mastery, delegated influence. It is translated as: authority, jurisdiction, liberty, power, right, strength. In this work it will normally be translated as authority. There are also other words for strength, force, power, etc. But these are the two primary ones.

righteousnessThis term has lost its true sense because of religious tradition. In this work it will normally be translated as justification. The Greek word is dikaiosune. It means: equity of character or act; just; fair; it particularly refers to justification. It is virtually always translated as: righteousness. It refers to doing what is “right” to another. It should be translated as justice, or its variants.

sky – See heaven.

soulThis is a most inappropriate term and should never appear in The Scripture. It is a Greek creation. It has no Hebrew basis, even though you will find many books that suggest it does. They are only using “recent language and ideas” to convey a non-carnal (not fleshly) concept. It is pure deception! The proper term to use is “being”.

spiritThere are two terms that are typically translated as spirit.
Both of them are incorrect
Spirit” is a Greek creation. There is no such term in the Hebrew language. In Hebrew thought the breath of a person is considered to be “the wind of man”. Because it moves in and out of the very center of a person it was believed to be their “vital essence”, their “character”, or “nature”.

pneuma – It means: a current of air, breath; breeze.
It's translated as: ghost, life, spirit (incorrectly), mind.
Where 
pneuma is used in the text, and this inner essence is suggested by the context, the term “vital essence” or “ nature” will be supplied instead of “spirit”.

psuche – It means: breath. It refers to the essential life breath within us – that which was breathed into Adam when he became a living being.
It's translated as: heart, life, mind, soul (incorrectly).

“Soul” is also a Greek creation. A person does not have a “soul”. The proper designation is “being”, one’s “existence” that results from the “breath of life” that a person carries within them while they are alive.
We are “living beings”, just as
YAHWEH is a “living being. We are created in His “likeness”. You will never find a reference in Scripture to “the soul of God”.

Where psuche appears in the text and is being used to refer to this “life breath” we will use the term “life” instead of “soul”.

student – See disciple.

There are many other terms that could be defined more accurately. It is beyond the scope of this work
to do so. These are presented because they involve some of the worst areas of confusion within The New Covenant. They also occur more frequently than some other terms. 


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May YAHWEH speak to your heart and bless you with understanding as you explore His Word.