Darkness to Light

The Light of The World

                The people
     who walked in darkness
     have seen a great light.
  They who dwell in the land
     of the shadow of death,
    upon them has The Light
         given illumination. 
                            Isaiah. 9:2 

         Then YAHUSHUA
       spoke again to them
                  saying,
            I am The Light
  
              of the world. 
         He who follows Me
   will not walk in
obscurity, 
             but will have
           The Light of Life.
   
                             John 8:12 

There is a movement in Scripture from darkness to light; 
It starts in
Genesis 1.2 with the creation being "dark”. 
It ends in
Revelation 22.16 with "the bright and morning star".

Many of the concepts of darkness correspond to obscurity. 
Darkness means the absence of light; obscurity. Obscure means dim, dark, murky, gloomy. It also means not easily perceived.  

Light is often used as a metaphor for illumination. Indeed, light means that which illuminates; that which makes it possible to see, to perceive.

These concepts apply to physical aspects of life, but they also apply to its mental aspects. We perceive (see) things with our minds as well as with our eyes, our touch, our taste, or our hearing. There are many ways to “see”. Each of these is vitally important to our awareness of the world in which we live. Without some form of “illumination” we face many serious challenges.

Nowhere is the more crucial than In our relationship with YAHWEH.
There we find the full significance of these concepts.We either are able to "see”, because we have light, illumination, or we are unable to "see”, 
because something is covered with "darkness”, with obscurity of one form or another.

As in so many other aspects of Scripture there is a vital significance to "light" and "dark”. What begins in darkness and chaos
moves into light and orderliness. Indeed, the
Hebrew concept of light includes the concept of orderliness. 

The establishment of light in Genesis is quickly followed by a different form of “darkness”. It’s the darkness called “sin”. Ironically, under the guise of “knowledge” the human beings formed by YAHWEH reject His “Light”  in search of “their own”; all brought about by “an angel of light” know later as Lucifer (light-bearer), who promises them the “light” of the knowledge of good and bad. As "sin" enters the world the forces of "darkness" take over. and the human beings are left in “darkness”, separated from The True Light, YAHWEH.

From this point Scripture leads us upon a journey through many variations, many “shades" of illumination and obscurity. In the experience of sin and its resultant banishment from the presence of YAHWEH we find great darkness permeating our lives. Things are obscure, confusing, and not easily understood. Into that experience YAHWEH injects His solution, "The Light of the world” - YAHUSHUA, The Messiah. Through Him we once again are given light, illumination. Once again we are granted the ability to perceive. And the "darkness of obscurity" is dissipated for those who choose to trust their entire life to Him. The end result is total "illumination”! The Truth is, in the end, fully revealed to us. And we are able to "see" as never before. This word study is about that movement - from darkness to light - a continuing cycle within The Word of YAHWEH
May you be 
enlightened by what's presented.

The primary goal of this study, and others like it that are being prepared, is to help eliminate confusion within The Scriptures. 
The current state of affairs has left us with innumerable “translations” that are not really "translations" at all. Instead, they are misleading presentations of the "
traditions of men”.

There's a special term for this. It's called eisegesis. It means placing one's own ideas into a text to make it conform to one's own world view or belief system. Exegesis, on the other hand, is seeking to discover what the text actually says, and means. 

In this word study the following conventions will be used: 
Bold = best translation 
{ } = Writer's insertions for purposes of clarity. 
The primary definitions are from Strong's Exhaustive Concordance. 
Everything after the (--) is a word that's used in the KJV to "translate" the Hebrew or Greek term into English. You'll see a number of rather confusing "translations" as you review these. Just remember, these are
not part of the definition itself. 

You are encouraged to use a good dictionary to help understand the terms. 
Note: The list of Greek terms precedes
The New Covenant Sections.
Many terms are connected to others.Observe carefully how similar they are.Many times in Hebrew the only differences are in the “vowel pointings”, which were not part of the original text.

HEBREW TERMS - DARKNESS:

The following 3 terms are connected.

651. lEpDa 'aphel, aw-fale´; from an unused root meaning to set as the sun; dusky
—very dark.                                                                
[occurs 1 time] 

652. lRpOa 'ophel, o´fel; from the same as 651; dusk
darkness, obscurity, privily.                                   [occurs 9 times] 

653. hDlEpSa 'aphelah, af-ay-law´; feminine of 651; duskiness, figuratively, misfortune; concrete, concealment:  {dimness}
- dark,
darkness, gloominess, x thick.                   [occurs 10 times] 


The following seven terms are connected: 

2816. JKwøvSj chashowk, khash-oke´; (Aramaic) from a root corresponding to 2821; the dark:                                                                        
- darkness.                                                                 
[occurs 1 time] 

2821. JKÅvDj chashak, khaw-shak´; a primitive root; to be dark (as withholding light); transitively, to darken: 
—be black, be (make) dark, darken, cause darkness, be dim, hide.
                                                                                   [occurs 18 times]  

2822. JK‰vj choshek, kho-shek´; from 2821; the dark; hence (literally) darkness; figuratively, misery, destruction, death, ignorance, sorrow, wickedness:
-dark(-ness), night, obscurity.                                    
[occurs 80 times]

2823. JKOvDj chashok, khaw-shoke´; from 2821; dark (figuratively, i.e. obscure):
- meaning                                                                   
[occurs 1 time]
2824.
hDk◊vRj cheshkah, khesh-kaw´; from 2821; darkness:
—dark.                                                                        
[occurs 1 time]

2825. hDk´vSj chashekah, khash-ay-kaw´; or hDk´yvSj chashekah, khash-ay-kaw´; from 2821; darkness; figuratively, misery: 
—darkness.                                                                  
[occurs 5 times]

2841. h∂r◊vAj chashrah, khash-raw´; from the same as 2840; properly, a combination or gathering, i.e. of watery clouds:
—dark.                                                                        
[occurs 1 time]

The following two terms are connected:

3543. hDh;Dk kahah, kaw-haw´; a primitive root; to be weak, i.e. (figuratively) to despond (causatively, rebuke), or (of light, the eye) to grow dull: 
darken, be dim, fail, faint, restrain, x utterly.
                                                                                 
[occurs 6 times]

3544. hRh;Ek keheh, kay-heh´; from 3543; feeble, obscure:
somewhat dark, darkish, wax dim, heaviness, smoking.
                                                                                  
[occurs 7 times]

The following two terms are connected: 

3990. lEpSaAm ma'aphel, mah-af-ale´; from the same as 651; something opaque:
darkness.                                                               [occurs 1 time]

3991. hÎyVlSaAm ma’phelyah, mah-af-ay-leh-yaw´; prol. feminine of 3990; opaqueness
- darkness.                                                                  [occurs 1 time]

4285. JKÎvVjAm machshak, makh-shawk´; from 2821; darkness; concretely, a dark place: —dark(-ness, place).                                                     [occurs 7 times]

4588. P…woDm ma'uwph, maw-off´; from 5774 in the sense of covering with shade (compare 4155); darkness:
dimness.                                                               [occurs 1 time] 

5890. hDpyEo 'eyphah, ay-faw´; feminine from 5774; obscurity (as if from covering):
—darkness.                                                               
[occurs 2 times]

5939. hDfDlSo 'alatah, al-aw-taw´; feminine from an unused root meaning to cover; dusk:
-dark,
twilight.                                                         [occurs 4 times]

 

The following two terms are connected: 
6150.
bArDo 'arab, aw-rab´; a primitive root (identical with 6148 through the idea of covering with a texture); to grow dusky at sundown: {Dusky means lacking light, dim}                    
be darkened, (toward) evening.                             [occurs 3 times]

6153. b®rRo 'ereb, eh´-reb; from 6150; dusk
{Dusk means the beginning of darkness; the dark part of twilight} 
—+ day,
even(-ing, tide), night.                              [occurs 137 times]
{Please note the standard translation of this day, evening. It is used extensively}


6205.
lRp∂rSo 'araphel, ar-aw-fel´; probably from 6201; gloom (as of a lowering sky): {Gloom means to be or become dark, dim, or dismal} 
—(gross,
thick) dark (cloud, -ness).                        [occurs 15 times]

 

The following two terms are connected:

6751. lAlDx tsalal, tsaw-lal´; a primitive root (identical with 6749 through the idea of
hovering over (compare 6754));
to shade, as twilight or an opaque object:
—begin to be dark, shadowing.                           
     [occurs 2 times]

6752. lRlEx tselel, tsay´-lel; from 6751; shade
shadow.                                                               [occurs 4 times]

 

The following two terms are connected:

6937. rAd∂q qadar, kaw-dar´; a primitive root; to be ashy, i.e. dark-colored; by implication, to mourn (in sackcloth or sordid garments):
be black(-ish), be (make) dark(-en), x heavily, (cause to) mourn.
                                                                            
   [occurs 10 times]

6940. t…wr√dAq qadruwth, kad-rooth´; from 6937; duskiness:
blackness.                                                          [occurs 1 time]

THE NEW COVENANT - DARKNESS:

GREEK TERMS - DARKNESS:

850. aujcmhro/ß auchmeros, owkh-may-ros´; from aujcmo/ß auchmos (probably from a base akin to that of 109) (dust, as dried by wind); properly, dirty, i.e. (by implication) obscure:
 —
dark.                                                               [occurs 1 time]


2217. zo/foß zophos, dzof´-os; akin to the base of 3509; gloom (as shrouding like a cloud):                                                               — blackness, darkness, mist.                              [occurs 4 times]

 

The following five terms are connected:

4652. skoteino/ß skoteinos, skot-i-nos´; from 4655; opaque, i.e. (figuratively) benighted:
-
dark, full of darkness.                                       [occurs 3 times]

4653. skoti÷a skotia, skot-ee´-ah; from 4655; dimness, obscurity (literally or figuratively):
dark(-ness).                                                   [occurs 16 times]

4654. skoti÷zw skotizo, skot-id-zo; from 4655; to obscure (literally or figuratively)
— darken.                                                           
[occurs 8 times]

4655. sko/toß skotos, skot´-os; from the base of 4639; shadiness, i.e. obscurity (literally or figuratively):
darkness.                                                       [occurs 32 times]

4656. skoto/w skotoo, skot-o´-o; from 4655; to obscure or blind (literally or figuratively):
be full of darkness.                                       [occurs 1 time]

HEBREW TERMS - LIGHT:

The following three terms are connected:

215. rwøa 'owr, ore; a primitive root; to be (causative, make) luminous (literally and metaphorically):  {to give light}
-x break of day, glorious, kindle, (be, en-, give, show) light (-en, -ened), set on fire, shine.                                                            [occurs 43 times]

216. rwøa 'owr, ore; from 215; illumination or (concrete) luminary (in every sense, including lightning, happiness, etc.): 
—bright, clear, + day, light (-ning), morning, sun.
                                                                          
[occurs 122 times]

219. h∂rwøa 'owrah, o-raw´; feminine of 216luminousness, i.e. (figuratively) prosperity; also a plant (as being bright): {brightness} 
—herb, light.                                                     [occurs 2 times]

 

3313. oApÎy yapha', yaw-fah´; a primitive root; to shine:
—be light, shew self, (cause to) shine (forth).
                                                                       
  [occurs 8 times]


3940.
dyÚIpAl lappiyd, lap-peed´; or dÚIpAl lappid, lap-peed´; from an unused root probably meaning to shine; a flambeau, lamp or flame: 
—(fire-)brand, (burning) lamp, lightning,
torch.
                                                                         
[occurs 14 times]


3974.
rwøaDm ma'owr, maw-ore´; or rOaDm maor, maw-ore´; also (in plural) feminine h∂rwøaVm ma’owrah, meh-o-raw´; or h∂rOaVm morah, meh-o-raw´; from 215; properly, a luminous body or luminary, i.e. (abstractly) light (as an element): figuratively, brightness, i.e. cheerfulness; specifically, a chandelier:
—bright,
light.                                                  [occurs 19 times]

 

The following two terms are connected: 

5050. ;hÅgÎn nagahh, naw-gah´; a primitive root; to glitter; causatively, to illuminate
—(en-)lighten, (cause to) shine.                        [occurs 6 times]

5051. ;hÅgn nogahh, no´-gah; from 5050; brilliancy (literally or figuratively):
bright(-ness), light, (clear) shining.               [occurs 19 times]


5094.
ryIh◊n nhiyr, neh-heere´; (Aramaic) or wyrIh◊n nehiyruw (Aramaic), neh-hee-roo´; from the same as 5105; illumination, i.e. (figuratively) wisdom
—light.                                                         
     [occurs 3 times]

 
5216.
rˆyn niyr, neer; or rˆn nir, neer; also r´yn neyr, nare; or r´n ner, nare; or (feminine) h∂r´n nerah, nay-raw´; from a primitive root (see 5214; 5135) properly, meaning to glisten; a lamp (i.e. the burner) or light (literally or figuratively):
—candle, lamp, light.                                  
      [occurs 48 times]


6672.
rAhOx tsohar, tso´-har; from 6671; a light (i.e. window): dual double light, i.e. noon:
—midday, noon(-day, -tide), window.              
[occurs 23 times]

 

The following two terms are connected: 

7836. rAjÎv shachar, shaw-khar´; a primitive root; properly, to dawn, i.e. (figuratively) be (up) early at any task (with the implication of earnestness); by extension, to search for (with painstaking):
—(do something) betimes, enquire early, rise (seek) betimes, seek diligently)
early, in the morning).                                                        [occurs 12 times]

7837. rAjÅv shachar, shakh´-ar; from 7836; dawn (literal, figurative or adverbial):
—day(-spring), early, light, morning, whence riseth.
                                                                       
[occurs 23 times] 

NEW COVENANT TERMS - LIGHT:

GREEK TERMS - LIGHT:

The following two terms are connected:

826. aujga¿zw augazo, ow-gad´-zo; from 827; to beam forth (figuratively): 
{radiate} 
shine.                                                         [occurs 1 time]

827. aujgh/ auge, owg´-ay; of uncertain derivation; a ray of light, i.e. (by implication) radiance, dawn:
— break of day.                                        
      [occurs 1 time]

 

The following two terms are connected:

2014. ejpifai÷nw epiphaino, ep-ee-fah´-ee-no; from 1909 and 5316; to shine upon, i.e. become (literally) visible or (figuratively) known:
— appear,
give light.                                      [occurs 4 times]

2017. ejpifau/w epiphauo, ep-ee-fow´-o; a form of 2014; to illuminate (figuratively):— give light.                                                               [occurs 1 time]


The following four terms are connected:

2985. lampa¿ß lampas, lam-pas´; from 2989; a “lamp” or flambeau:
— lamp, light, torch.                                      
[occurs 9 times]

2986. lampro/ß lampros, lam-pros´; from the same as 2985; radiant; by analogy, limpid; figuratively, magnificent or sumptuous (in appearance):
bright, clear, gay, goodly, gorgeous, white. [occurs 9 times]

2987. lampro/thß lamprotes, lam-prot´-ace; from 2986; brilliancy:
brightness.                                                [occurs 1 time]

2989. la¿mpw lampo, lam´-po; a primary verb; to beam, i.e. radiate brilliancy (literally or figuratively):— give light, shine.                      [occurs 7 times]

 

3088. lu/cnoß luchnos, lookh´-nos; from the base of 3022; a portable lamp or other illuminator (literally or figuratively):
— candle, light.                                               [occurs 14 times]

 

5316. fai÷nw phaino, fah´-ee-no; prolongation for the base of 5457; to lighten (shine), i.e. show (transitive or intransitive, literal or figurative): 
— appear, seem, be seen, shine, x think.        [occurs 9 times]

 

5338. fe÷ggoß pheggos, feng´-gos; probably akin to the base of 5457 (compare 5350); brilliancy:
— light.                                                           [occurs 3 times]

 

The following five terms are connected:

5457.
fw◊ß phos, foce; from an obsolete fa¿w phao (to shine or make manifest, especially by rays; compare 5316, 5346); luminousness (in the widest application, natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative): 
 — fire, light.                                                  [occurs 68 times]

5458. fwsth/r phoster, foce-tare´; from 5457; an illuminator, i.e. (concretely) a luminary, or (abstractly) brilliancy:
light.                                                          [occurs 2 times]

5460. fwteino/ß photeinos, fo-ti-nos´; from 5457; lustrous, i.e. transparent or well-illuminated (figuratively):
— bright, full of light.                                     
[occurs 5 times] 

5461. fwti÷zw photizo, fo-tid´-zo; from 5457; to shed rays, i.e. to shine or (transitively) to brighten up (literally or figuratively):
enlighten, illuminate, (bring to, give) light, make to see.
                                                                       
[occurs 11 times]

5462. fwtismo/ß photismos, fo-tis-mos´; from 5461; illumination (figuratively):
— light.                                                           
[occurs 2 times]


If you’ve taken the time to review these terms you now understand how closely related many of them are to each other. You also have seen that illumination and obscurity are the primary characteristics of the terms.

There is a PDF file available that lists most of the occurrences of these terms in the verses where they are found. By reviewing the context, and the revisions that have been made for you,you can notice that the text becomes far less confusing. The PDF file is found at this link: Darkness to Light PDFThis is a fairly long document because of the many occurrences,but it’s worth your careful review. It transforms Scripture into a whole new perspective at many points.


NOTE These pages are a "work in progress". They're updated fairly often as new information or insights are provided that require a change in what's presented. Please check back regularly to see what may have changed since your last visit. Scripture verses used on the site are from Scripture For Seekers (see the Home Page)They're not always presented on these pages in exactly the same format as they occur in the text due to space considerations but the text is the same. Every book is now available in PDF format. Download or print your own copy today.  Or, go to www.accordancebible.com and obtain your own copy of Accordance. Then follow the instructions on the Home page to download an electronic version of Scripture for Seekers, S4S from The Accordance Exchange.
Personal use is free, but these are not to be used for any commercial purpose. Please contact the site owner if you have an interest in commercial usage.

May YAHWEH speak to your heart and bless you with understanding as you explore His Word.